Jump to: navigation, search

Sogokon Article

2,541 bytes added, 21:54, 11 May 2013
1 revision
= Lippmann’s photography on dichromated gelatin plate ='''SOGOKON' A. B.'''
{{Note | Are investigated the spectral characteristics of the Lippmann images, obtained on the layers of the bichromized gelatin (BKHZH). It is shown that the color of image depends not only on the wavelength of emission, but also on its intensity. This article was transcribed from is connected with the text heterogeneous swelling of gelatin and with a change of its structure in the [[Media : Sogokon Lipp phot nonirradiated sections with the rapid dehydration. The uncommon properties of Lippmann photographs on DCG.pdf | file available here]]BKHZH can be used for preparing the selective mirrors, for mapping of graphic information, and also for registration and image processing.}}
Is known [1] the method of obtaining the colored images, based on the registration of standing waves in the volume of thick transparent photographic emulsion. The research period of properties the registered interference structure is unambiguously connected with the wavelength of Lippmann’s images obtained on dichromated gelatin plate shows that image falling to the layer of emission, which ensures the correct color depends on wavelength reproduction of radiation as well as on the photographed image with the illumination by its intensitywhite emission. It relates to heterogeneous swelling of gelatin and structural changes Because of the great technical difficulties in its unirradiated parts at fast dehydrationtime this method did not obtain wide application.
Unusual behaviour The development of Lippmann’s images holography led to the creation of the fundamentally new technique of experiment and new recording media. Appeared communications about the record of Lippmann photographs on the contemporary emulsions of the type LOI-2 [ 2,3 ] and on dichromated the layers of the bichromized gelatin plate may be used for producing selective mirrors for reflecting graphic information (BKHZH) [ 4,5 ].Purpose of this work - study of the special features of the Lippmann photographs, obtained on the layers BKHZH, the mechanism of shaping of images and date registration and image processingpossibilities of their practical application.
== Introduction =='''Procedure and the results of the experiment'''
There For the preparation is layer BKHZH the basis it is undertaken the method Lina [16] a method . The holographic plates Of pe-2 and LOI-2 they fixed in the acid fixative, washed in the running water and dried at room temperature. The sensitization of obtaining color image based the dried plates was conducted directly before the exhibition. For this plate was immersed on registration of standing waves 5-15 min in 1-5%- ache the volume solution of thick transparent photographic emulsion. Period dichromate of registered interference structure is unambiguously related to ammonium and after its runoff dried in the length jet of hot air or in the wave of radiation influencing the platecabinet drier at a temperature 100-150°. This assures right color rendering of photographed image if disposed to white radiation. This method wasn't widely adopted because Duration of big technical problemsdrying 3-5 min.
Development of holography leads to creation of a totally new technique of experiment and new registering mediums[[Image:LippmannFig1. There appeared some announcements that Lippmann’s images have been tried on modern emulsions like ЛОИ-2 [2,3jpg] and on dichromated gelatin [4,5].
The aim of this work is to investigate Fig. 1. Installation diagram for the contact printing Lippmann photographs; 1 - luminous source(laser or mercury-vapor lamp), 2 - lens, 3 - negative, 4 - layer BKHZH, 5 - the behaviour of Lippmann’s images made on dichromated gelatin as well as mechanism of image formation and possibilities of its application on practice.mirror
== Method The installation diagram for the printing of Lippmann photographs is given in Fig. 1. They direct the extended laser beam to the negative, located before the recording medium, the passed emission is reflected from the flat mirror and, being extended in the opposite direction, is formed in the volume of the recording medium the standing wave, whose amplitude depends on the transmission of negative. As the radiation sources were used the lasers LPM-YY (442) and LIE -21 (337 nm) and results mercury-vapor lamp DRSH-2SHCH0 (365, 436 nm). Furthermore, by means of the usual photographic enlarger was achieved the direct projection printing of enlarged images.The regime of working the plates exposed practically was differed in no way from the regime of experiment ==working BKHZH for obtaining the holograms [ 7 ].
Lippmann’s method The images, obtained employing the procedure given above, have a number of interesting properties. With the examination of image in the reflected light (a subnormal incidence in the light) different sections of image depending on the density of initial negative acquire different color. Under the transparent sections is basic for making dichromated gelatin plates [6]. Holographic plates ПЭobtained the image of dark-2 and ЛОИblue color, while under the opaque -2 were placed into acid fixing solution then washed in running water and dried at room temperaturered. The plates were sensitized right before exposuresemitones of negative are transferred by nuances within the limits from the orange to the green. For this Hence it is possible to draw the plate was placed for 5-15 minutes into 1-5% solution conclusion that the period of the interference structure, fixed in the layer BKHZH, depends both on the wavelength of dichromated ammonium emission and after on its runoff dried by hot air current at temperature 100-150°C. The duration of drying is 3-5 minutesintensity.
[[Image:LippmannFig1If we arrange Lippmann imprint on the sheet of black paper and to examine at large angle, then usual black and white image is observed.jpg|center|Image 1Under the transparent sections of the negative of gelatin it remains transparent, while under the opaque acquires milk-white tone. Scheme of device for contact printing In this case the image is constructed not due to the luminous absorption, but due to its scattering, which resembles the properties of Lippmann’s imageson the vesicular materials [8]. 1 – light source (For investigating the dependence of the color of image on the exposure level on one plate they achieved a number of exposures by the uniform collimated laser beam or mercury lamp)photographed the image of sensitometric wedge, 2 – lens, 3 – negative, 4 - dichromated gelatin plateand then the spectra of the transmission of the obtained images were measured.]]
Scheme of device for contact printing of Lippmann’s images is displayed on image 1. Widened laser beam is directed onto registering medium. The radiation passed through reflected from plate glass spreads in reverse and forms a standing wave in the volume of registering medium the amplitude of which depends of negative passing. As the source of radiation lasers ЛПМ-11(442nm) and ЛГИ-21 (337nm) and mercury lamp ДРШ-250 were used. Besides direct projecting printing of enlarged images was realized with help of a usual photographic enlarger[[Image:LippmannFig2.jpg]]
Processing mode Fig. 2. Characteristics of Lippmann the image: and, g - dependence of exposured plates hardly differed the spectra of the transmission of the images from that the exposure level with the record by the emission heliumcadmium (442 nm) and nitric (337 nm) lasers; b and d - dependence of dichromated gelatin the density of image on the exposure forobtaining hologram [7].the same wavelengths; C - the dependence of the color of the image from the logarithm of exposure (curve 1 - 442, curve 2 - 337 nm); e - dependence of the half-width of the spectra of the transmission of the images from the exposure (1 - 442, 2 -337 nm)
Images Fig. 2 depicts the spectral characteristics of the images, obtained using on the plates Of pe-2, sensitized by the 1%- by the solution of dichromate of ammonium during the exhibition by the foregoing method have a number emission of interesting qualitieslasers LPM-YY (Fig. If watching at an image in reflected light 2, A) LIE -21 (Fig. 2, g). From the analysis of spectra follows that depending on exposure level the width of reflection spectra (almost natural light rays fallingFig. 2,e) different parts changes, the wavelength of the maximum of reflection (Fig. 2, c), and also the image get different colors according to density of initial negativeimage (Fig. The image gets blue color under transparent parts and red color under opaque ones2, b, d). Half-tints It should be noted that the wavelength of the maximum of negative are reproduced by hues from orange reflection with the long exposures does not correspond to greenthe wavelength of the emission of record. From this follows This is connected with the fact that in the process of treating the layer an increase in the period of interference structure period occurs. The wavelength of the maximum of reflection linearly depends on length the logarithm of radiation wave as well as on its intensityexposure (Fig.2, c), which gives the possibility to write down
A Lippmann’s image if placed on a black sheet of paper and watched at broad angle will be black-and-white[[Image:LippmannEq1. Gelatin remains transparent under transparent parts of the image and gets milkwhite under opaque parts. In this case the image is not reproduced by light absorption but its dispersion that resembles the properties of display on vesicular materials [8gif]]. (1)
To investigate where - the dependence wavelength of the maximum of reflection with the high energy of exposure (wavelength of saturation), H - energy of exposure, k - constant of proportionality, which can be interpreted as the coefficient of image the color on contrast. With the conversion of the exposure within one plate color of image occurs a number change in its density (Fig. 2, b, d). These dependences are analogous to the characteristic curve of blackening of the usual recording media. However, the photographic latitude of linear section is considerably less, and in the field of the long exposures was done is observed the especially large spread of experimental points, which it is not possible to explain by collimated laser beamerror of measurements. There were made also photos It is possible to assume that the dependence of sensitometric wedge image and then spectrums of transmission in the region of saturation bears the received images measuredoscillitory nature, for example, as shown in Fig. 2, d.
On image 2 there are spectral characteristics '''Mechanism of images obtained on ПЭ-2 plates sensitized by 1% ammonium solution at exposure by laser ЛПМ-11 (image 2,a) and ЛГИ-21 (image 2, г). It follows from the analysis formation of spectrums that spectrum reflection width (image 2, e), length of wave maximum reflection (image 2, в) and density of image (image 2, б, д), change according to exposure amount. It is significant that length of wave maximum reflection at considerable exposure does not correspond to the length of radiation wave of the record. It’s due to increasing period of interference structure at layer processing.images'''
[[Image:LippmannFig2.jpg|center|Image 2. Lippmann’s images characteristics: а and г - dependence In the process of image transmission spectrums on exposure amount at recording by radiation the preparation of helium-cadmium plates for the sensitization they prolonged time (442 nmabout 1 h) find in the water. As a result of this gelatin it swells, long protein molecules untwist and nitrogen (337 nm) lasers; б and д – dependence of image density they attempt to form the linear arrays. To molecules, which are been located on exposure surface layer, this succeeds to the larger degree than for molecules, which are located in the depth, since they to a lesser degree experience the resistance of adjacent molecules. In the razbukhshem layer is obtained the heterogeneous tanning, which grows from surface layer to the base layer. The surface molecules of gelatin, which formed the linear arrays, no longer can accomplish work, they occupied energetically advantageous position, while molecules, which are located in the same wave length; в – dependence depth of layer, they have a certain reserve of image color on exposure logarithm (curve 1 – 442potential energy, curve 2 – 337 nm); dependence since interaction of some with others and with the molecules of half-width tanning matter does not make possible for them to be erected into the linear arrays. Tanning can be determined by value, to the inversely proportional work, accomplished by molecules with the working in the water. Layer is not tanned, if molecules realize entire stored potential energy, and it is tanned, if potential energy with the working in the water does not realize. The potential distribution energy along the thickness of transmission spectrums on exposure (1 – 442the razbukhshego layer can be schematically presented, as shown in Fig. 3, 2 – 337 nm)A.]]
Length Let us examine the processes, proceeding with swelling of those exposed it is layer. In this case we consider that the photochemical transformations Cr(.VI) into S.r(.III) in the gelatin occur in accordance with the model, described in the work [ 9 ]. The number of photos-seam between the molecules, which were being formed in the antinodes of standing wave maximum reflection linearly depends on logarithm , is small with low energies of exposure, summary binding energy between them is also small, and the potential distribution energy of the molecules of the swollen layer takes the form, shown in Fig. 3, b. furthermore, with the prolonged working in the water together with swelling of layer in the knots of standing wave can occur the local dissolution of gelatin, i.e. the hydrated molecules acquire relative freedom, changing the structure of gelatin, but they cannot leave layer because of the tanned sections in the antinodes. In the works [ 10,11 ] it is shown that the structure of gelatin changes both with working of layer in the water and in the process of drying. Therefore with the working by isopropanol a change in the structure of gelatin in the knots and the antinodes occurs differently, i.e. with the rapid loss of water of molecule they do not manage to return to the initial state and they are forced to form the new molecular network, different from that, which is obtained with usual gel-NII - Scientific Research Institute or slow drying. In the knots of standing wave gelatin density decreases due to an increase in the volume of layer, while in the antinodes it increases due to structure change under the action of that forming Of s.r(.III). As a result of gelatin the elasticity loses, and in the layer the increased period of interference structure is fixed. With an increase in the exposure grows modulation of potential energy of the razbukhshego layer. The number of constant-phase surfaces, recorded in the layer, increases (image 2Fig. 3, in, g, вd)what gives possibility to write, the width of reflection spectra and displacement into the red region decrease, and diffraction effectiveness rises.
<div><p style="float: left; width: 90%; textBy a change in the structure of gelatin it is possible to explain the formation of black and white image. The destructured sections strongly scatter light, which gives milk-align: center;"><math>\displaystyle \lambda - \lambda_0 = k (\log{H_{max}} - \log{H})</math></p><p style="float: left; width: 10%; text-align: center;">(1)</p><p style="width: 100% /></div>white form to them.
'''Consideration of the results'''
Uncommon properties of Lippmann photographs on the layers BKHZH can be used for preparing the selective mirrors, for obtaining the pseudo-colored slides from the black and white negatives, for registration and image processing.
The possibility of using the Lippmann photographs as the selective mirrors directly follows from Fig. 2. The wavelength of reflection and half-width depend on exposure level. In this case the reflection coefficient attains 99%, which makes it possible to use such mirrors in the resonators of lasers, in the Fabri-Perot interferometers, and also as the beam splitters in the holographic devices. The cost of them is considerably lower than interference dielectric mirrors, and in this case is a possibility of preparing the mirrors of practically any sizes and creation of any distribution of spectral characteristics in the plane of mirror.
where λo - length of wave maximum reflection at high energy of exposure (wave length of saturation), H – energy of exposure, k – coefficient of proportionality which may be interpreted as coefficient of colors contrast[[Image:LippmannFig3.jpg]]
Image color change evokes change of its density (image 2, б, д). These dependences are similar to characteristics curve of nigrescence of simple registering mediumsFig. Nevertheless photographic width of linear region is much smaller3. Dispersion Diagram, which elucidates the dependence of experimental points is especially considerable in regions the period of high the interference structure from the exposure that can’t be explained by measurement errors. We can suppose that dependence level: and - the distribution of image transmission the tanning in region the razbukhshem unexposed layer; b, in, g, d - modulation of saturation has oscillating character as demonstrated for example the tanning in the razbukhshem layer depending on image 2, д.the exposure
== Mechanism The pseudo-colored slides, obtained from the black and white negatives, can be used for mapping of graphic information, for example diagrams, tables, graphs. Slides can be demonstrated both in the transmitted light by usual kadroproyektorom and in that reflected with the application of an epidiascope. The second version should be given preference, since with this more fully is used color range and is reached higher high-contrast image creation ==.With the printing from the black and white negatives the value [[Image:LippmannEq2.gif]] and [[Image:LippmannEq3.gif]] in equation (1) can be represented in the form
Preparing plates to sensitizing they should be placed into water for a period of time (about one hour). As a result gelatin gets swelled and long protein molecules swivel in the way to create linear chains. It relates more to molecules on the surface of the layer than those which are deep in as they are less exposed to strength of adjacent molecules. There appears a heterogeneous hardening increasing from the layer surface to substrate. Superficial gelatin molecules forming linear chains can no longer perform work as they took favorable energetic position. Molecules deep in the layer have some amount of potential energy. Their interaction with each other and molecules of gelatin hardener prevents their forming linear chains. This hardening can be defined as value inversely proportional to work performed by molecules when processed in water. The layer is not hardened if molecules realized their potential. The layer is hardened If they didn't realize their potential energy when processed in water. Distribution of potential energy in the thickness of hardened layer may be presented in diagram form as demonstrated on image 3,a[[Image:LippmannEq4.gif]]
Let’s consider processes taking place at hardening of exposed layers. Here we consider that photochemical transformations Cr (VI) to Cr (III) is realized according to model described in work [9]. At low exposure energies the number of photographic connections between the molecules created in bulge points is also small. Distribution of potential energy of molecules in hardened layer is demonstrated on image 3,б. At enduring processing in water besides hardening of layer in nodes of standing wave there may occur local gelatin dissolution. In other words hydrated molecules get relatively free changing their structure but can’t leave the layer because of hardenings in bulge. Work [10] and [11] describe that gelatin structure change at processing in water as well as at it’s drying. Therefore when processed by isopropanol change of gelatin structure in nodes and bulges are realized different ways. At considerable loss of water molecules don’t have time to return to initial state so they are forced to create a new molecular netting different from that which is created at simple freezing or slow drying. Gelatin density decreases in bulge points of standing due to growth of layer volume and increases in bulges due to change of structure under influence of formed Cr (III). As a result gelatin loses its elasticity. Increased period of interference structure can also be registered in the layer. Increasing exposure involves increasing of potential energy modulation in swelled layer. Number of isophased surfaces recorded in layer increases (image 3, в,г,д). Width of spectrum reflection and displacement to red region decrease but diffraction efficiency increases.
Performance of black-and-white image can be explained by change of gelatin structure. Unstructured spots cause considerable light dispersion and get milk-white colored[[Image:LippmannEq5.gif]]
== Discussing results ==where - the intensity of light, which falls to the negative, the smallest density of negative (density of veil), density of image, time of exhibition. After substituting these values in (1), we will obtain
Unusual properties of Lippmann’s photos made on gelatin plates can be used for producing selective glasses as well as for receiving pseudocolor slides from black-and-white negatives and image processing and registration[[Image:LippmannEq6.gif]]
Possibility whence it follows that a change in the color in the Lippmann photograph is linearly connected with the density of using Lippmann’s photos as selective glasses follows directly from negative.Recently increasingly more frequently is used the idea of complex spatial distributions of different physical quantities by means of the conditional it is color, for example, with digital processing of images [ 12 ]. To Lippmann photographs on BKHZH this property is inherent by their nature itself. In this case Lippmann "painting" has the advantage that the obtained image can be subjected to further optical working. Examining the pseudo-colored image through the light filter with the passband [[Image:LippmannEq7.gif]], we will observe the details of initial image 2, which are located in the density range [[Image:LippmannEq8. gif]]. Length By a change in the wavelength of wave reflection light filter it is possible to separate the image details interesting, and by changing its half-width depend - range of densities interesting. If the image, observed through the interference light filter, photographed on exposure valuethe contrasting photographic material, then it is possible to obtain the images of the lines of identical density - equidensities. At For the illustration is carry ouied processing the image of planet Jupiter. For this coefficient from the astro-negative they printed image with an increase by the layer BKHZH. The obtained image they photographed through the interference light filter with [[Image:LippmannEq9.gif]] = 640 nm and [[Image:LippmannEq10.gif]]= 90A. Fig. 4, and depicts the photograph of reflection reaches 99% that allows using such glasses in laser resonatorsinitial image, while on Fig. 4, b, interferometers FabriC -Perot to a series of photographs with the different angles of the slope of interference light filter, i.e. with the different [[Image:LippmannEq9.gif]] and also as beam dividers in hologram devices[[Image:LippmannEq10.gif]]. It is evident that even under the conditions for the incorrectly set experiment (reconstruction of the wavelength of light filter was achieved via its inclination) on the obtained images it is possible to reveal more interesting details, than on the initial negative.
[[Image:LippmannFig3LippmannFig4.jpg|center|Image 3. Scheme explaining dependence of interference structure on value of exposure: а - distribution of hardening in swelled non-exposed layer; б, в, г, д – modulation of hardening in swelled layer depending on exposure.]]
They cost less than interference dielectric glassesFig. 4. There is also possibility Isolation of producing glasses equidensities on the image of almost any size as well as distribution planet Jupiter: and - the imprint of spectrum characteristics within glass plane. Pseudocolor slides received from blacksiskhodnogo astro-andnegative; b -white negatives may be used for transmission photograph of graphic information for example schemesthe Lippmann image, tables, diagrams. Slides can be projected at passing obtained with the interference light by simple slider as well as at filter with the different angles of its inclination in the reflected light by epidiascope. It’s better to give preference to ; C - the same, but in the second variant as color gamma is fuller and image contrast is higher then.transmitted light
At printing from blackHowever, with the two-stage process unavoidably are shown distortions andnoise, which appear during the first stage of registration. The granularity of images on Fig. 4, b is caused by the granularity of the material, on which is registered initial negative. Therefore the considerably larger volume of information can be extracted with processing of the Lippmann images, obtained with the direct registration. However, sufficiently small sensitivity it is layer FOR BKHZH it does not make possible to directly record the images of other astros-object, except the sun. The direct registration of Lippmann images possibly in biology. In this case the emission of lamp DRSH-white negatives value H<sub>max</sub> and H 2SHCH0 it is completely sufficient for obtaining the images with increase in equation (1) can be presented as30-100x.
<center><math>\displaystyle> H_{max} = I_0 t (10^{Thus, the Lippmann photographs, obtained on the layers BKHZH with the use of sources of monochromatic light, have properties, substantially different from the properties of usual Lippmann photographs. This is connected with the special features of the recording medium: the period of the fixed interference structure depends not only on the wavelength of incident radiation, but also on its intensity. As a result the possibility of the single-D_0})</math> valued conversion of the intensity of light in the color appears. Simplicity of the diagram of obtaining Lippmann photographs, possibility of using the sources with the small length of coherence and <math>\displaystyle H = I_0 t (10^{-D})</math></center>high diffraction effectiveness of images open the great possibilities of the practical application of this method.
from this follows that change In conclusion the author considers as his pleasant duty to express appreciation To v. p. sherstyuk and L. ye. mazur for the valuable considerations, in. By a. kaminskoy and By l. ye. nikishinoy for help in conducting of color of Lippmann’s photo is linearly dependent on negative densityspectrophotometric measurements and V. n. dudinova - for the kindly furnished astro-negatives.
Last time in increasing frequency is used the idea of complex spacial distribution of different physical values by conventional colors for example at image digital processing [12]. This quality is inherent to Lippmann’s photos taking in consideration their nature. Lippmann’s coloring method has an advantage: such image may further be optically processed. Observing a pseudo-colored image through a light filter with gating line Δλ we can see details of initial image in the interval of densities ΔD.'''LITERATURE'''
Details *1. Lippmann G S. R// Acad. Sci. 1891. V. 112. P 274.*2. Kostylev G. d. //Pis'ma in ZHTF 1976. Vol. 2. Of iss. 23. S. 1086. *3. Kostylev G. d., Ivanenko L. i.// the theses of interest dokl. IV All-Union conf. "photometry and its metrological guarantee". M., 1982. S. 119. *4. Sogokon' A. V.// the theses of image may be marked by change dokl. IV All-Union conf. "non and uncommon fo- tograficheskiye processes". Blackcap, 1984. Vol. 1 of wave length h. 2. S. 251. *5. Sogokon' A. b.// the theses of light filterdokl. Diapason of densities may as well be marked by changing its halfII All-widthUnion conf. If you make a photo the "forming of optical image observed through interference filter on a contrast photographic material you can receive image and the methods of its working". Kishinev, 1985. Vol. 1. S. 125. *6. Lin L n.// Appl. Opt. 1969. V 8. № 5. P 963. *7. Sjolinder S// Photogr. Sci. And Eng. 1984. V 28. № 5. P 180. *8. Nagornyy V. i., Chibisova N. p. //ufn. 1978. Vol. 19. S. 32. *9. Sherstyuk V. p., Dilung I. I. In the book: Fundamental bases of lines the optical of same density – equidensitepamya- TI and medium. Kiev: Vishcha shk. 1982. Iss. 13. S. 33. *10. Levi S. m., Suchkova O. m., Suvorin V. To illustrate this image of Jupiter was processedV. For this // the image jour. of astro negative was printed with enlargement on dichromated gelatin platenauch. and appl. Then was made photo - and kinema of received image through interference light filter with λ=640 nm and Δλ=90Åtografii. 1984. Vol. 29. Photo of initial image is presented on image 4. S. 252. *11. Murzinov A. V., aMoiseyeva G. V. On image 4, б, в there are series of photos made at different angles of interference light filter incline that is at different λ Stryukova e. g. and Δλ. You can see that even in conditions other// theses of incorrectly organized experiment (setting the report republic of wave length se- of light filter is realized by its incline) you can discover more details on received images than on initial negativeminara "applied holography". Kiev, 1984. S. 49. *12. Usikov A. 4., Babichev A. A., Yegorov a. d., etc.// to conduct. AN OF UKRCSSR - UKRAINIAN SSR. 1977. № 10. S. 47.
[[Image:LippmannFig4.jpg|center|Image 4. Marks of equidensite on Jupiter image: a – initial imprint of astro negative; б – photos of Lippmann’s image received using interference light filter at different angles of its incline at reflected light; в – the same but at passing light.]] At two-step process there inevitably occur distortion and noise at the first stage of registration. Grain on image 4, б is due to that of material on which the initial negative is registered. Therefore you can get much more information when processing Lippmann’s photos received at direct registration. Low sensitivity of dichromated gelatin plates does not allow direct registration of other astro objects except Sun. Direct registration of Lippmann’s photos is possible in biology. Radiation of ДРШ-250 lamp is enough for receiving images with enlargement 30-100x. Thus Lippmann’s photos received on dichromated gelatin plates using sources of monochromatic light have properties appreciably different from those of usual Lippmann’s photo. It’s related to properties of medium of registrationKharkov state university im. Period of fixed interference structure depends not only on length of radiation wave but also on its intensity. As a result there is a possibility to unambiguously transform light intensity to color. Simplicity of method of receiving Lippmann’s photos, possibility of using sources of low coherent length and high difraction efficiency offers a wide range of possibilities in practicing this method. In conclusion the author estimates as his pleasant duty to express gratitude to V.P.Sherstyuk, and L.E.Mazur for their important discussions, to V.A.Kaminskaya and L.E.Nikishyna for assistance in leading spectrophotometric measurement and to V.N.Dudinov for his kindly giving us astro negatives. == Literature: == # Lippmann G.C.R.// Acad. Sci. 1891.V.112. P. 274# Kostylev G.D. // Letters in Technical Physics magazine 1976. T. 2. Edition 23.P. 1086.# Kostylev G.D., Ivanenko L.I. // Thesis report. IV All-Union conference “Photometry and its metrological equipment”. M., 1982. P. 119# Sogokon A.B. // Thesis report. IV All-Union conference “Silverless and other unusual processes”. Chernogolovka, 1984. T. 1. Vol. 2. P. 125.# Sogokon A.B. // Thesis report. IV All-Union conference “Optical image formation and processing methods”. Kishinev, 1985. T. 1. P. 125.# Lin L.H. // Appl. Opt. 1969. V. 8. №5. P. 963.# Sjölinder S. // Photogr. Sci. and Eng. 1984. V. 28. №5. P. 180.# Nagorniy V.I., Chibisova N.P. // Successes of Physical Sciences. 1978. T. 19. P. 32.# Sherstyuk V.P., Dilung I.I. in “Fundamentals of optical memory and mediums”. Kiev: High School. 1982. Edition 13. P. 32# Levi S.M., Suchkova O.M., Suvorin V.V. // Magazine of a scientific and applied photo and cinematography. 1984. T. 29. №4. P. 252# Murzinov A.V., Moiseeva G.V., Stryukova E.G. and others // Thesis report at republican seminar “Applied holography”. Kiev, 1984. P. 49.# Usikov A. Y., Babichev A.A., Egorov A.D., and others // USSR Science Academy bulletin. 1977. №10. P. 47. Kharkov State University of Gorkiy 13.12.1985<br>Translated by Borozniak Evgeniy[[Category:Lippmann]]Gor'kiy

Navigation menu